Flight Redemptions

What is LVP in Aviation? (Low Visibility Procedures)

Updated: March 02, 2024

Understanding Low Visibility Procedures (LVP) in Aviation

Aviation is an industry that operates under strict guidelines and regulations to ensure the safety of passengers and crew members. One critical aspect of aviation operations is dealing with low visibility conditions, which can occur due to fog, mist, rain, snow, or other atmospheric conditions. In such situations, pilots and air traffic controllers follow specific procedures known as Low Visibility Procedures (LVP) to maintain safe operations. In this article, we will explore what LVP entails, how it affects aviation operations, and the measures taken to mitigate risks during low visibility conditions.

The Importance of Low Visibility Procedures

When visibility is reduced due to weather conditions, such as fog or heavy rain, it becomes challenging for pilots to navigate and land aircraft safely. Low visibility conditions pose a significant risk to aviation operations, as pilots may have difficulty seeing runways, taxiways, or other aircraft in their vicinity. This can lead to potential accidents, collisions, or runway incursions. To mitigate these risks, airports and air traffic control authorities have established LVP to ensure safe and efficient operations during low visibility conditions.

One of the primary objectives of LVP is to enhance situational awareness for pilots and air traffic controllers. By implementing specific procedures and protocols, LVP aims to provide clear instructions and guidance to pilots, enabling them to navigate and land safely even when visibility is significantly reduced. These procedures also ensure that air traffic controllers have accurate information about the aircraft's location and movements, allowing them to manage traffic flow effectively and prevent any potential conflicts or incidents.

Key Elements of Low Visibility Procedures

Low Visibility Procedures consist of several key elements that help ensure the safe operation of aircraft during periods of reduced visibility. These elements include:

Reduced Runway Visibility RVR: Runway Visual Range (RVR) is a measure of visibility along the runway, indicating the distance at which an object can be seen. During low visibility conditions, airports may set specific RVR thresholds, below which LVP are activated. For example, if the RVR drops below 550 meters, LVP may be implemented, leading to changes in aircraft separation, approach procedures, and taxiing.

Instrument Landing System (ILS): The Instrument Landing System is a ground-based navigation aid that helps pilots align and descend accurately for landing. During low visibility conditions, ILS becomes even more critical, as it provides pilots with precise guidance for approach and touchdown. LVP often mandate the use of ILS for aircraft operations, ensuring that pilots have the necessary assistance to navigate safely.

Increased Separation Standards: To ensure safe operations during low visibility conditions, airports and air traffic control authorities may implement increased separation standards between aircraft. This allows for a larger buffer zone between aircraft, reducing the risk of collisions or conflicts. By maintaining greater distances between aircraft, pilots have more time to react and adjust their flight paths if necessary.

Special Takeoff and Landing Procedures: LVP may also involve specific takeoff and landing procedures tailored for low visibility conditions. These procedures may include changes in approach speed, altitude restrictions, or specific paths to follow. By adhering to these procedures, pilots can navigate the aircraft safely, even with limited visibility, minimizing the potential risks associated with low visibility conditions.

It is important to note that LVP are not universal. Each airport and aviation authority may have its own set of procedures and protocols to be followed during low visibility conditions. These procedures are designed based on factors such as airport infrastructure, aircraft capabilities, and local weather patterns. Therefore, pilots and air traffic controllers must familiarize themselves with the specific LVP in place at their operating airports to ensure compliance and safety.

Implementing Low Visibility Procedures

Implementing LVP involves close coordination and communication between various stakeholders in the aviation industry. Airports, air traffic control authorities, and airlines work together to ensure the smooth operation of flights during low visibility conditions. Here are some key steps involved in implementing LVP:

Airport Preparedness and Planning

Airports play a crucial role in managing low visibility conditions. They invest in advanced meteorological equipment, such as Runway Visual Range (RVR) sensors, to accurately measure visibility along the runways. When visibility drops below specific thresholds, the airport activates LVP and notifies air traffic control authorities and airlines.

Additionally, airports have specific procedures in place to manage aircraft movements during low visibility conditions. This includes designating specific holding areas for aircraft waiting to depart or land, ensuring proper sequencing and spacing of aircraft, and providing guidance to pilots on taxiing routes and procedures.

Air Traffic Control Operations

Air traffic controllers play a critical role in managing low visibility conditions. They are responsible for ensuring the safe separation and movement of aircraft during reduced visibility. Air traffic control towers are equipped with advanced radar systems and communication tools to monitor aircraft positions and provide clear instructions to pilots.

During low visibility conditions, air traffic controllers rely heavily on instruments and automated systems to track aircraft movements. They use radar displays and computer systems to monitor aircraft positions, assign specific headings and altitudes, and ensure safe spacing between aircraft. Communication between air traffic controllers and pilots is essential to ensure that all instructions are understood and followed correctly.

Pilot Compliance and Training

Pilots are at the forefront of implementing LVP during low visibility conditions. They must be well-trained and familiar with the specific procedures and protocols in place at their operating airports. Airlines provide comprehensive training to pilots, ensuring they understand and can effectively execute the necessary procedures during reduced visibility.

Pilots also rely on advanced avionics systems and instruments to navigate and land safely during low visibility conditions. These systems include Head-Up Displays (HUD), Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and other technologies that provide real-time data and visual cues to pilots, enhancing situational awareness and aiding decision-making.

Regular recurrent training and simulator exercises help pilots maintain their proficiency and competence in handling low visibility conditions. By staying updated with the latest procedures and technologies, pilots can confidently operate aircraft during low visibility conditions, ensuring the safety of passengers and crew.


Low Visibility Procedures (LVP) play a crucial role in maintaining safe and efficient aviation operations during periods of reduced visibility. By implementing specific protocols and procedures, LVP enhance situational awareness for both pilots and air traffic controllers, reducing the risks associated with low visibility conditions. The use of Instrument Landing Systems, increased separation standards, and special takeoff and landing procedures contribute to the safe navigation and landing of aircraft in adverse weather conditions. Through careful planning, coordination, and training, airports, air traffic control authorities, and pilots work together to ensure the safety and well-being of everyone involved in aviation operations.

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