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What is GPP in Aviation? (General Practices And Procedures)

Updated: February 27, 2024

General Practices and Procedures in Aviation (GPP)

General Practices and Procedures (GPP) play a crucial role in ensuring safe and efficient operations in the aviation industry. These practices and procedures are established guidelines that pilots, air traffic controllers, and ground personnel follow to maintain standardization and minimize the risk of accidents. In this article, we will explore the key elements of GPP and their significance in the aviation industry.

1. Pilot General Practices and Procedures

As the individuals responsible for operating aircraft, pilots adhere to a set of general practices and procedures to ensure the safety of passengers and crew onboard. These practices begin long before the aircraft takes off and continue until it safely lands at its destination.

One of the essential GPP for pilots is performing pre-flight checks. Before every flight, pilots meticulously inspect the aircraft to ensure that all systems are functioning correctly. This includes checking the fuel levels, control surfaces, navigation equipment, and ensuring that emergency equipment is readily available. By following these pre-flight procedures, pilots can detect any potential issues that may compromise the safety of the flight.

During the flight, pilots also adhere to specific GPP to maintain situational awareness and safe operation. These practices include monitoring the aircraft's instruments, maintaining communication with air traffic control, and adhering to established altitude and speed restrictions. By following these procedures, pilots can navigate through airspace safely and efficiently.

Additionally, pilots are trained to handle various emergency situations, such as engine failures or severe weather conditions. Through comprehensive training programs and regular simulations, pilots develop the skills necessary to respond appropriately and mitigate risks during unexpected events.

2. Air Traffic Control General Practices and Procedures

Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel are responsible for managing the flow of air traffic and ensuring the safe separation of aircraft. Their adherence to GPP is vital to maintaining the overall safety and efficiency of the aviation system.

One of the primary GPP for ATC is maintaining clear and concise communication with pilots. ATC controllers use standardized phraseology and procedures to relay information to pilots, such as weather updates, runway assignments, and traffic advisories. This ensures that all parties involved have a common understanding of the situation and can make informed decisions.

ATC controllers also follow specific separation procedures to prevent aircraft from getting too close to each other. These procedures involve assigning different altitudes, speeds, and routes to aircraft, considering factors such as their weight and performance capabilities. By maintaining appropriate separation, ATC controllers reduce the risk of mid-air collisions and ensure a smooth flow of traffic.

Moreover, ATC personnel are responsible for managing ground movements at airports, including the taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft. They follow established procedures to provide clear instructions to pilots and ensure that runway incursions are minimized. These procedures help in preventing accidents on the ground, where aircraft movements can be complex and congested.

3. Ground Handling General Practices and Procedures

Ground handling personnel play a critical role in preparing and servicing aircraft before and after flights. They must follow GPP to ensure the safety of passengers, crew, and the aircraft itself.

One of the key GPP for ground handling is conducting thorough inspections of the aircraft before it is loaded with passengers and cargo. Ground handlers check the integrity of the aircraft's exterior, including the fuselage, wings, and engine nacelles, to identify any signs of damage or potential issues. Additionally, they verify that all necessary equipment, such as stairs and baggage loaders, are in good working condition.

Another essential practice in ground handling is correctly loading the aircraft with passengers and cargo. Ground handlers carefully calculate the weight and balance of the aircraft to ensure it remains within safe operating limits. They follow specific procedures to distribute the weight evenly and secure the cargo properly, preventing any shifts during flight that could affect the aircraft's stability.

Furthermore, ground handling personnel are responsible for fueling the aircraft. They follow strict procedures to ensure that the correct type and quantity of fuel are loaded into the aircraft. This includes conducting fuel quality checks and monitoring the fueling process to prevent any spills or leaks that could pose a safety hazard.

By adhering to these GPP, ground handling personnel contribute to the overall safety and efficiency of the aviation industry.


General Practices and Procedures (GPP) are an integral part of the aviation industry, ensuring safe and efficient operations in all aspects of flight. Pilots, air traffic controllers, and ground handling personnel follow these practices to maintain standardization and minimize the risk of accidents. From performing pre-flight checks to managing air traffic flow, GPP play a crucial role in upholding the highest standards of safety in aviation.


FAA - Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
SKYbrary - General Aviation Safety

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