Flight Redemptions

What is FAC in Aviation? (Final Approach Course)

Updated: February 23, 2024

The Final Approach Course (FAC) in Aviation

In aviation, the final approach course (FAC) plays a crucial role in the safe landing of an aircraft. It is a designated path that pilots follow during the final phase of their approach to the runway. The FAC provides pilots with a precise route to follow, ensuring they align with the runway and maintain a safe descent. Let's explore the significance of the final approach course and its importance in aviation.

The Purpose of the Final Approach Course

The final approach course, also known as the final approach track, serves as a visual and navigational aid for pilots. It guides them towards the runway, ensuring they approach it at the correct angle and altitude. By following the FAC, pilots can maintain accuracy and consistency during their descent, reducing the risk of overshooting or undershooting the runway.

The FAC is typically aligned with the runway's centerline, allowing pilots to establish a direct path towards the touchdown zone. It ensures that all aircraft approach the runway in a standardized manner, reducing the potential for collisions or conflicts with other aircraft. The final approach course is especially crucial in low-visibility conditions, such as fog or heavy rain, where pilots heavily rely on their instruments to navigate.

During the final approach, pilots must adhere to specific altitude and speed restrictions, which are determined by air traffic control and the aircraft's performance capabilities. The FAC provides pilots with the necessary guidance to maintain these restrictions and ensure a safe landing. It also aids in the timely and efficient flow of air traffic, as each aircraft can follow the same established path.

Establishing and Maintaining the Final Approach Course

The final approach course is established based on several factors, including the runway's orientation, geographic constraints, and airspace regulations. Airports typically have multiple runways, each with its own final approach course. These courses are designed to minimize the impact of crosswinds and ensure optimal landing conditions.

Before an aircraft begins its final approach, air traffic control provides the pilot with the necessary information regarding the FAC, including its heading and any required altitude changes. Pilots can then input this information into their navigation systems, ensuring they are aligned with the correct final approach course.

During the final approach, pilots rely on a combination of visual cues and instrument readings to maintain the FAC. They may refer to onboard navigation systems, such as GPS or instrument landing systems (ILS), to ensure they stay on course. Additionally, pilots may receive guidance from air traffic control, who monitor their progress and provide necessary instructions.

It is essential for pilots to make continuous adjustments during the final approach to maintain the FAC accurately. Crosswinds, air traffic, and other factors can cause deviations from the intended course. Pilots must actively monitor their position and make corrections as needed to ensure they remain aligned with the final approach course.


The final approach course (FAC) is a critical component of aviation that ensures the safe and efficient landing of aircraft. By providing pilots with a designated path to follow during the final phase of their approach, the FAC helps maintain accuracy, consistency, and standardization. It guides pilots towards the runway, allowing them to align with the touchdown zone and maintain the necessary altitude and speed restrictions. The FAC is established based on various factors, and pilots rely on visual and instrument cues to stay on course. Overall, the final approach course plays a vital role in ensuring the smooth flow of air traffic and the safety of all aircraft during landing.

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